University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario: 16mm.
"In building design, both capital and operating costs must be considered, especially those of energy conservation. A process called life cycle costing uses a principle called discounting to get all costs in Present Value Dollars and includes several factors—capital investment, energy consumed, cyclical renewal and maintenance. These are calculated with single payment factor and cumulative single payment factor tables. In the examples of alternative methods for glazing and for a heating-cooling system, the one with the highest initial cost proved to be the lowest overall, thus saving both energy and money."
York University, Toronto, Ontario: 16mm.
Library and Archives Canada: 16mm.
"Building with life cycle costing. Energy conservation as an essential to building design because operating costs have become as expensive as capital costs. Energy, maintenance, recycling."